Lebanon

 

Country overview

lebanon1

Country overview

Total area [1]: 10,400 km2
Climate [1]: Mediterranean
Population [1]: 5,882,562 (July 2014 estimation)
Population growth rate [1]: 9.37%
Children under the age of 5 years underweight [1]: 4.2%
GDP – per capita [1]: 15,800 USD
Internally displaced persons (IDPs) [2]: 0
Refugees residing in Lebanon [2]: 1,115,988 0
Total population of concern residing in Lebanon [2]: 1,122,874
Total population of concern originating from Lebanon [2]: 6,968

 

 

Sources:

[1] CIA, “The World Factbook - Lebanon,” 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html [Accessed: 04-Mar-2015].

[2] UNHCR, “UNHCR - Lebanon,” 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e486676.html [Accessed: 04-Mar-2015].

Assessment phase

Assessment phase

 

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with the assessment phase.

Technologies proposed

Technologies proposed

Out of the six informal settlement initially assessed, only five of them were considered:

Chekka (LB01)

All easy-to-install and movable solutions:

  • Power supply: solar home system (standalone photovoltaic system for indoor and outdoor lighting)

  • Food preservation: vacuum sealing system (hand-pump and sacks)

  • Food cooking: micro-gasifier and haybasket

  • Water purification: UV water purifier with UV lamp integrated

Kfarsaroun (LB02)

All easy-to-install and movable solutions:

  • Power supply: standalone photovoltaic system in DC for indoor and outdoor lighting and food refrigeration

  • Food preservation: small thermoelectric refrigerator

  • Food cooking: pot skirt for gas burner

  • Water purification: UV water purifier with UV lamp integrated

Chekka (LB04)

Fixed solutions:

  • Power supply: modular microgrid powered by photovoltaic panels for indoor and outdoor lighting and food refrigeration

  • Food preservation: compressor refrigerator for community use

  • Food cooking: pot skirt for gas burner

Heri (LB05)

All easy-to-install and movable solutions:

  • Power supply: solar home system (standalone photovoltaic system for indoor and outdoor lighting)

  • Food preservation: vacuum sealing system (hand-pump and sacks)

  • Food cooking: haybasket

Deddeh (LB06)

Fixed solutions:

  • Power supply: micro hybrid (wind + solar) system for food refrigeration

  • Food preservation: multi-compartment compressor refrigerator with thermal storage

  • Food cooking: pressure cooker

    lebanon12


The access to electrical energy will be improved through different solutions: in two camps, solar-home-made systems will be introduced in all the households, proving indoor and outdoor (security) lights and power for small devices. Although commercial kits are quite common on the international market, in Lebanon only self-assembled systems are available. A vacuum sealing system, with a hand pump, will improve food preservation, as well as food packaging practices.

A small supply of plastic sacks will be included to facilitate the introduction of this technology. In another camp, self-assembled kits will power also a small thermoelectric refrigerator. All the technologies of the previously mentioned camps are plug-and-play, easy to install and to disconnect, and moveable. In case of eviction, they can be transported without any problem.

In another camp a microgrid will meet the energy needs of all the households in terms of lighting and small electrical loads, and will power some community compressor refrigerators. Finally a hybrid system, powered by wind and solar, will supply energy to a number of large refrigerators inside a collective centre. These refrigerators will have 8 lockable compartments each, and will have a thermal storage to make up for any blackout. Indeed, all the families of the settlement will benefit from some refrigeration space.

Food cooking will be improved through the introduction of different technologies. A micro-gasifier will be suggested for a camp, where firewood is the only fuel in use. Pot skits will be locally manufactured and distributed to those families using camping burners. Haybaskets will be locally-made as well, and proposed to the interested families. Finally pressure cookers will be distributed to the families in the collective centre.

Finally in the two camps with risk of water bio-contamination, purifier with a integrated UV lamp will be used.

 

Technologies Implemented

Technologies implemented

Several challenges were met during the procurement process, and the negotiation with the host community. First of all, not all the technologies proposed were easily available on the Lebanese market, thus both importation and adaptation of locally available products had to be evaluated. Then power generation systems, in particular the hybrid system, required further discussions with the contractor identified in order to clarify some technical requirements and to customize them according to the local context. Situation of Syrian refugees is quite fluid in some settlements, and in some municipalities mayors decided not to allowed the project implementation, despite what they had communicated before. Indeed some families were evicted despite the mayors’ interest for the SET4food project. Due to this new situation, an extra settlement in Kfarsaroun (LB08) was assessed. Finally the cost of some technologies was higher than expected, due to the Lebanese market, thus only the most interesting were selected for implementation.

The technologies implemented are the following:

Kfarsaroun (LB02)

All easy-to-install and movable solutions:

  • Power supply: standalone photovoltaic system in DC for indoor and outdoor lighting and food refrigeration
  • Food preservation: small thermoelectric refrigerator
  • Food cooking: pot skirt for gas burner (locally-made with a design tailored on burners in use)
  • Water purification: UV water purifier with UV lamp integrated

Photovoltaic systems use locally available devices, trying to imitate the easy-to-install and moveable characteristics of a solar home system. Thus battery, charge controller and circuit breakers are fixed together, as well as the 4 switches. All the devices, including solar panel with its metallic frame, are fixed with standard screws, and can be moved quite easily. The thermoelectric refrigerator is a plug-and-play 24 litres camper-like model.

Pot skirt is designed considering both the gas burners and the pots in use. it is a metallic cylinder with two moveable rings to adapt it to different pot sizes. An external casing will prevent the burnings, in particular for children.

 

Deddeh (LB06)

Fixed solutions:

  • Power supply: micro hybrid (wind + solar) system for food refrigeration
  • Food preservation: multi-compartment compressor refrigerator with thermal storage

The hybrid system is an innovation for the Lebanese market. Indeed it is the first wind- powered system in the North, up to our knowledge, and one of the few hybrid systems available in country. Moreover it has an advance data logging system, able to monitor energy generation from both the wind and photovoltaic parts, and consumption of the load connected. Then refrigerators have a higher priority in terms of energy consumption (primary load), thus the other devices connected (secondary or auxiliary load) are automatically excluded in case of level of battery charge below a set threshold. Also the primary load is automatically excluded in case of a low level of battery charge, in order to preserve battery life. Finally the system could be connected to the public power grid, not only for an extra source of energy, but also to feed it back, in a “smart grid” logic. All these characteristics make the system unique and innovative for Lebanon, and it can be a reference for public authorities, institutions and private companies.

Refrigerators have 8 lockable compartments, in order to serve independently but with a partially community approach, a larger number of families. They are equipped with eutectic plates able to keep the internal temperature even in case of a prolonged lack of power.

 

Kfarsaroun (LB08)

All easy-to-install and movable solutions:

  • Food cooking: micro-gasifier (model ELSA) and haybasket (supporting self-construction)
  • Food preservation: vacuum sealing system (hand-pump and sacks)

The ELSA cookstove is produced locally, according to the indications provided by the developers. It is the biggest version, suggested for cooking purposes, and for a longer use. The Lebanese market is able to easily manufacture this kind of cookstove, with a good quality and with an appropriate material (stainless steel 316, thickness 0.6 mm). The support structure will be prepared with the users, according to the materials readily available (e.g. cement blocks or empty metallic drums). Haybaskets are introduced as well, using materials already available in the settlement (e.g. baskets, large pots, blankets).

Vacuum sealers are simple-to-use systems composed of a hand-pump and plastic bags. These bags should be replaceable with other products available on the market.

Pilot project story

Pilot project story

October 2014
The main part of the field assessment was carried out.

November 2014
The first draft of technologies was proposed.

February 2015
Technologies were finally defined, including social acceptability and market analysis.

Procurement of technologies started in February. Procurement procedures took a couple of months, in order to clarify technical, logistical and financial aspects. In particular some families were evicted, and informal settlements dismantled by local authorities. From a technical point of view, for example a better knowledge of the wind situation permitted to revise the technical characteristics of one of the systems proposed.

March 2015
An additional informal settlements was assessed in March.

All the camps were surveyed several time to confirm the number of families and local conditions. In particular all the families, landlords and local authorities were met again to discuss about technology introduction.

April 2015
Suppliers and contractors were contracted in April.

June 2015
Almost all the technologies are working according to expectations, while only few problems still require some attention. In particular in settlement LB08 families are not allowed to cook burning firewood due to a new municipal directive, thus ELSA cookstoves could not be used. A new settlement, in a rural area where the use of firewood is allowed, was identified and families started using ELSA cookstoves.

July 2015
All the technologies are used by beneficiaries. Joint monitoring mission with representatives of the European Commission's Humanitarian aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO).

August 2015
All the technologies operational and in use. Only cookstoves rarely used. Hybrid system under specific monitoring.

September 2015
Hybrid system for food preservation under specific monitoring.

October 2015
A strengthening of the hybrid system was designed.

November 2015
The hybrid system was strengthened.

December 2015
All the technologies operational and in use.

 

SET4food is a project developed by:                                                                                                                                

Logo a colori in orizzontale senza pay off    PoliMI Croped SAFE -CropedGlobal Aliance Clean Cookstoves blue v2 Transparent    FAO     WFP

 

 
 
 

                                                           Co-funded by:      

         EU CP-HA EN                                                                                                                                                  

 

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